Second Amendment

Law Review Articles

Published academic scholarship on the Second Amendment

Last updated: March 22, 2000

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Amar, Akhil R., The Bill of Rights as a Constitution, 100 Yale L.J. 1131, 1162-1175 (1991). [HTML] 57k

Ansell, S. T., Legal and Historical Aspects of the Militia, 26 Yale L.J. 471-480 (1917). [HTML] 31k

Barnett, Randy E., The Relevance of the Framers' Intent, 19 Harv. J. of L. & Pub. Pol'y 403-410 (1996). [HTML] 27k

_____, & Kates, Don B., Under Fire: The New Consensus on the Second Amendment, 45 Emory L.J. 1140-1259 (1996). [HTML] 467k

Batey, Robert, Strict Construction of Firearms Offenses: The Supreme Court and the Gun Control Act of 1968, 49 L. & Contemp. Probs. 163-198 (1986). [HTML] 177k

Blodgett-Ford, Sayoko, Do Battered Women Have a Right to Bear Arms?, 11 Yale L. & Pol. Rev. 509-560 (1993). [HTML] 221k

Bursor, Scott, Toward a Functional Framework for Interpreting the Second Amendment, 74 Texas L. Rev. 1125-1151 (1996). [HTML] 115k

Cantrell, Charles L., The Right to Bear Arms: A Reply, 53 Wis. B. Bull. 21-26 (Oct. 1980). [HTML] 38k

Caplan, David I., The Right of the Individual to Bear Arms: A Recent Judicial Trend, 4 Det. L. Rev. 789-823 (1982). [HTML] 132k

_____, Restoring the Balance: The Second Amendment Revisited, 5 Fordham L.J. 31-53 (1976). [HTML] 87k

Cottrol, Robert J. & Diamond, Raymond T., The Fifth Auxiliary Right, 104 Yale L.J. 995-1026 (1995). [HTML] 142k

_____, "Never Intended to be Applied to the White Population": Firearms Regulation and Racial Disparity--The Redeemed South's Legacy to a National Jurisprudence?, 70 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 1307-1335 (1995). [HTML] 134k

_____, The Second Amendment: Toward an Afro-Americanist Reconsideration, 80 Georgetown L.J. 309-361 (1991). [HTML] 244k

Cramer, Clayton E., The Racist Roots of Gun Control, 4 Kansas J. of L. & Pub. Pol. 17-25 (1995). [HTML]  

_____ & Kopel, David B., "Shall Issue": The New Wave of Concealed Handgun Permit Laws, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 679-757 (1994). [HTML]  

Denning, Brannon P., Professional Discourse, The Second Amendment and the "Talking Head Constitutionalism" Counterrevolution: A Review Essay, 21 So. Ill. U. L.J. 227-253 (1997). [HTML] 105k

_____, Palladium of Liberty? Causes and Consequences of the Federalization of State Militias in the Twentieth Century, 21 Okla. City U. L. Rev. 191-245 (1996). [HTML] 178k

_____, Can the Simple Cite be Trusted?: Lower Court Interpretations of United States v. Miller and the Second Amendment, 26 Cumb. L. Rev. 961-1004 (1996). [HTML] 163k

_____ & Reynolds, Glenn Harlan, It Takes a Militia: A Communitarian Case for Compulsory Arms Bearing, 5 Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J. 185-214 (1996). [HTML] 123k

Dennis, Anthony J., Clearing the Smoke From the Right to Bear Arms and the Second Amendment, 29 Akron L. Rev. 1-92 (1995). [HTML] 148k

Dillon, John F., & Thompson, S.D., eds., The Right to Keep and Bear Arms for Private and Public Defence, 1 Central L. J. 259-261, 273-275, 285-287, 295-296 (1874). [HTML] 50k

Dorf, Robert C., "Use" and the Irresistible Impulse to Legislate, 12 Touro Law Review 123-142 (1995). [HTML]  

Dowlut, Robert, The Right to Keep and Bear Arms: A Right to Self-Defense Against Criminals and Despots, 8 Stanford L. & Pol. Rev. 25-40 (1997). [HTML] 109k

_____, Bearing Arms in State Bills of Rights, Judicial Interpretation, and Public Housing, 5 St. Thomas L. Rev. 203-214 (1992). [HTML] 52k

_____, Federal and State Constitutional Guarantees to Arms, 15 U. Dayton L. Rev. 1-89 (1989). [HTML] 134k

_____, The Right to Arms: Does the Constitution or the Predilection of Judges Reign?, 36 Oklahoma L. Rev. 65-105 (1983). [HTML] 167k

_____ & Knoop, Janet A., State Constitutions and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 7 Okla. City U. L. Rev. 177-241 (1982). [HTML] 237k

Ehrman, Keith A. & Henigan, Dennis A., The Second Amendment in the Twentieth Century: Have You Seen Your Militia Lately?, 15 U. Dayton L. Rev. 5 (1989). [HTML]  

Emory, Lucilius A., The Constitutional Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 28 Harv. L. Rev. 473-477 (1915). [HTML] 13k

Funk, Markus T., Gun Control and Economic Discrimination: The Melting-Point Case-in-Point, 85 N.W. U. J. of Crim. L. & Crim. 764-806 (1995). [HTML] 184k

_____, Is the True Meaning of the Second Amendment Really Such a Riddle? Tracing the Historical "Origins of an Anglo-American Right", 39 Howard L.J. 411-436 (1995). [HTML] 102k

Gardiner, Richard E., To Preserve Liberty--A Look at the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 10 N. Ky. L. Rev. 63-96 (1982). [HTML] 126k

Gottlieb, Alan M., Gun Ownership: A Constitutional Right, 10 N. Ky. L. Rev. 113-140 (1982). [HTML] 91k

Halbrook, Stephen P., Second Class Citizenship and the Second Amendment in the District of Columbia, 5 GMU Civ. Rts. L.J. 105-178 (1995). [HTML] 235k

_____, Personal Security, Personal Liberty, and "The Constitutional Right to Bear Arms": Visions of the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment, 5 Seton Hall Const. L.J. 341-434 (1995). [HTML] 293k

_____, Congress Interprets the Second Amendment: Declarations by a Co-Equal Branch on the Individual Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 597-641 (1995). [HTML] 170k

_____, The Right of the People or the Power of the State: Bearing Arms, Arming Militias, and the Second Amendment, 26 Val. U. L.Rev. 131-207 (1991). [HTML] 257k

_____, The Right to Bear Arms in Texas: The Intent of the Framers of the Bill of Rights, 41 Baylor L. Rev. 629-688 (1989). [HTML] 218k

_____, Encroachments of the Crown on the Liberty of the Subject: Pre-Revolutionary Origins of the Second Amendment, 15 U. Dayton L. Rev. 91-124 (1989). [HTML] 121k

_____, What the Framers Intended: A Linguistic Analysis of the Right to "Bear Arms", 49 Law & Contemp. Probs. 151-162 (1986). [HTML] 57k

_____, The Right to Bear Arms in the First State Bills of Rights: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Vermont, and Massachusetts, 49 Vt. L. Rev. 255-320 (1985). [HTML] 225k

_____, To Keep and Bear Their Private Arms: The Adoption of the Second Amendment, 1787-1791, 10 N. Ky. L. Rev. 13-39 (1982). [HTML] 96k

_____, The Jurisprudence of the Second and Fourteenth Amendments, 4 GMU L. Rev. 1-69 (1981). [HTML] 250k

Hardy, David T., The Second Amendment and the Historiography of the Bill of Rights, 4 J. of Law & Pol. 1-62 (1987). [HTML] 214k

_____, The Firearms Owners' Protection Act: A Historical and Legal Perspective, 17 Cumb. L. Rev. 585-682 (1987). [HTML] 380k

_____, Armed Citizens, Citizen Armies: Toward a Jurisprudence of the Second Amendment, 9 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol'y 559-638 (1986). [HTML] 287k

Henigan, Dennis A., Arms, Anarchy and the Second Amendment, 26 Val. U. L. Rev. 107 (1991). [HTML]  

Johnson, Nicholas E., Principles and Passions: The Intersection of Abortion and Gun Rights, 50 Rutgers L. Rev. 97-197 (1997). [HTML] 329k

_____, Beyond the Second Amendment: An Individual Right to Arms Viewed Through the Ninth Amendment, 24 Rutgers L.J. 1-81 (1992). [HTML] 281k

Kates, Don B. Jr., Gun Control: Separating Reality from Symbolism, 20 J. Contemp. L. 353-379 (1994). [HTML] 100k

_____, The Second Amendment and the Ideology of Self-Protection, 9 Const. Comm. 87-104 (1992). [HTML] 60k

_____, Bigotry, Symbolism and Ideology in the Battle over Gun Control, Pub. Interest L. Rev. 31-46 (1992). [HTML] 45k

_____, The Value of Civilian Handgun Possession as a Deterrent to Crime or a Defense Against Crime, 18 Am. J. of Crim. Law 113-167 (1991). [HTML] 225k

_____, The Second Amendment: A Dialogue, 49 L. & Contemp. Probs. 143-150 (1986). [HTML] 37k

_____, Handgun Prohibition and the Original Meaning of the Second Amendment, 82 Mich. L. Rev. 204-273 (1983). [HTML] 308k

_____, Schaffer, Henry E., Lattimer, John K., Murray, George B., Cassem, Edwin H., Guns and Public Health: Epidemic of Violence or Pandemic of Propaganda?, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 513-596 (1994). [HTML] 364k

Kopel, David B., It Isn't About Duck Hunting: The British Origins of the Right to Arms, 93 Mich. L. Rev. 1335-1362 (1995). [HTML] 124k

_____, The Ideology of Gun Ownership and Gun Control in the United States, 18 Qtl'y J. of Ideology 3-34 (1995). [HTML] 76k

_____, Lethal Laws, 15 N.Y. L. Sch. J. of Int. & Comp. L. 355-398 (1995). [HTML] 144k

_____, Rational Basis Analysis of "Assault Weapon" Prohibition, 20 J. of Contemp. L. 381-417 (1994). [HTML] 125k

_____, Peril or Protection? The Risks and Benefits of Handgun Prohibition, 12 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 285-359 (1993). [HTML]  

_____, Japanese Gun Control, 12 Asia Pac. L. Rev 26-52 (1993). [HTML] 89k

_____, Canadian Gun Control: Should the United States Look North for a Solution to its Firearms Problem?, 5 Temple Int'l & Comp. L.J. 1-50 (1991). [HTML] 228k

_____ & Cramer, Clayton E. & Hattrup, Scott G., A Tale of Three Cities: The Right to Bear Arms in State Supreme Courts, 68 Temple L. Rev. 1177-1240 (1995). [HTML] 288k

_____ & Gardiner, Richard E., The Sullivan Principles: Protecting the Second Amendment from Civil Abuse, 56 Seton Hall Legis. J. 737-775 (1995). [HTML] 134k

_____ & Little, Christopher C., Communitarians, Neorepublicans, and Guns: Assessing the Case for Firearms Prohibition, 56 Maryland L. Rev. 438-554 (1997). [HTML] 476k

Levin, John, The Right to Bear Arms: The Development of the American Experience, 48 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 148-167 (1971). [HTML] 65k

Levinson, Sanford, The Embarrassing Second Amendment, 99 Yale L.J. 637-659 (1989). [HTML] 94k

Lott & Mustard, Crime, Deterrence, and Right-to-Carry Concealed Handguns, 26 U. Chi. J. of L. Stud. -- (1997). [PDF]  

Lund, Nelson, The Ends of Second Amendment Jurisprudence: Firearms Disabilities and Domestic Violence Restraining Orders, 4 Tex. Rev. L, & Pol. 157-191 (1999). [HTML] 122k 

_____, The Past and Future of the Individual's Right to Arms, 31 Ga. L. Rev. 1-76 (1996). [HTML] 253k

_____, The Second Amendment, Political Liberty, and the Right to Self-Preservation, 39 Ala. L. Rev. 103-130 (1987). [HTML] 96k

Malcolm, Joyce Lee, The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms: The Common Law Tradition, 10 Hastings Const. L.Q. 285-314 (1983). [HTML] 113k

Moncure, Thomas M. Jr., Who is the Militia--The Virginia Ratification Convention and the Right to Bear Arms, 19 Lincoln L. Rev. 1-25 (1990). [HTML] 85k

Olson, Joseph E. & Kopel, David B., All the Way Down the Slippery Slope: Gun Prohibition in England and Some Lessons for Civil Liberties in America, 22 Hamline L. Rev. 399-465 (1999). [HTML] 282k

Polsby, Daniel D. & Kates, Don. B., Jr., Of Holocausts and Gun Control, 75 Wash. U. L.Q. 1237- (1997). [HTML]  

Powe, L.A., Guns, Words, and Constitutional Interpretation, 38 Wm & Mary L. Rev. 1311-1403 (1997). [HTML] 331k

Quinlan, Michael J., Is There a Neutral Justification for Refusing to Implement the Second Amendment or is the Supreme Court Just "Gun Shy"?, 22 Cap. U. L. Rev. 641-692 (1993). [HTML] 194k

Reynolds, Glenn H., A Critical Guide to the Second Amendment, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 461-512 (1995). [HTML] 210k

_____, The Right to Keep and Bear Arms under the Tennessee Constitution: A Case Study in Civic Republican Thought, 61 Tenn. L. Rev. 647-673 (1994). [HTML] 105k

_____, & Kates, Don B., Jr., The Second Amendment and States' Rights: A Thought Experiment, 36 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1737-1768 (1995). [HTML] 108k

Shalhope, Robert E.,, The Armed Citizen in the Early Republic, 49 L. & Contemp. Probs. 125-141 (1986). [HTML] 71k

_____, The Ideological Origins of the Second Amendment, 69 J. of Am. Hist. 599-614 (1982). [HTML] 61k

Shelton, Gregory Lee, In Search of the Lost Amendment: Challenging Federal Firearms Regulation Through the State's Right Interpretation of the Second Amendment, 23 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. -- (1995). [HTML]  

Sprecher, Robert A., The Lost Amendment, 51 A.B.A. J. 554-557 (June 1965). [HTML] 30k

_____, The Lost Amendment, 51 A.B.A. J. 665-669 (July 1965). [HTML] 35k

Van Alstyne, William, The Second Amendment and the Personal Right to Arms, 43 Duke L.J. 1236-1255 (1994). [HTML] 69k

Vandercoy, David E., The History of the Second Amendment, 28 Val. L. Rev. 1007-1039 (1994). [HTML] 127k

Volokh, Eugene, The Commonplace Second Amendment, 73 NYU L. Rev. 793- (1998). [HTML]  

_____, The Amazing Vanishing Second Amendment, 73 NYU L. Rev. 831- (1998). [HTML]  

_____, Cottrol, Robert J., Levinson, Sanford, Powe, L.A. Jr., Reynolds, Glenn H., The Second Amendment as Teaching Tool in Constitutional Law Classes, 73 J. of L. Ed. -- (forthcoming 1998). [HTML]  

Weatherup, Roy G., Standing Armies And Armed Citizens: An Historical Analysis of The Second Amendment, 2 Hastings Const. L.Q. 961-1001 (1975). [HTML] 133k

Weiss, Jonathan A., A Reply to Advocates of Gun-Control Law, 52 J. of Urb. Law 557-589 (1974). [HTML] 42k

Williams, David C., The Unitary Second Amendment, 73 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 822-830 (1998). [HTML] 33k

_____, The Militia Movement and Second Amendment Revolution: Conjuring with the People, 81 Cornell L. Rev. 879-952 (1996). [HTML] 287k

_____, Civic Republicanism and the Citizen Militia: The Terrifying Second Amendment, 101 Yale L.J. 551-615 (1991). [HTML] 304k

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