26 U.S.C. §7701(a)(26)
"The term 'trade or business' includes the performance of the functions
of a public office."
The "trade or business" scam-heart of the IRS fraud
HTML Version-Family Guardian
Treatise on the Law of Public Offices and Officers (OFFSITE
LINK) -Floyd Mechem, 1890. Google Books. Excellent.
You Don't Have Any Taxable Sources of Income-excellent
article about the "trade or business" issue from Great IRS
Hoax, section 5.6.11
The Trade or Business" Scam-Great
IRS Hoax, section 5.6.12
7701-General Discussion-by IRS EO organization.
Note the description of "trade or business"
- The ONLY thing that belongs on an IRS Form 1040 is "trade or business" income subject to the graduated rate of tax.
- IRS Form
1040NR includes spaces to write "trade or business" income under 26 U.S.C.
§871(b) and income not "effectively connected with a
trade or business" under 26 U.S.C.
- If you are not engaged in a trade or business and you live in
a state of the Union, the only proper form to file is the IRS Form
1040NR, not the IRS Form 1040.
§864: Definitions and Special Rules
TITLE 26 > Subtitle
A > CHAPTER 1 > Subchapter
N > PART
I > Sec. 864
Sec. 864. - Definitions and special rules
(b) Trade or business within
the United States
For purposes of this
part [part I], part
II, and chapter
3, the term ''trade or business within the United States'' includes
the performance of personal services within the United States at any time within the taxable year, but does not include -
of personal services for foreign employer
The performance of personal services -
for a nonresident alien individual,
foreign partnership, or foreign corporation, not engaged in trade or
business within the United States, or
for an office or place of business maintained in a foreign country or
in a possession of the United States by an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States or
by a domestic partnership or a domestic corporation, by a nonresident
alien individual temporarily present in the United States for a period
or periods not exceeding a total of 90 days during the taxable year
and whose compensation for such services does not exceed in the aggregate
31 C.F.R. §103.: Reports relating to currency in excess of $10,000 received
in a trade or business
31: Money and Finance: Treasury
PART 103—FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN
Subpart B—Reports Required To Be Made
§ 103.30 Reports relating to currency in excess of $10,000
received in a trade or business.
(11) Trade or business. The term trade or business has the same
meaning as under section 162 of title 26, United States Code.
26 U.S.C. §6041: Trade or Business Expenses
26 U.S. Code § 6041 - Information at source
(a)Payments of $600 or more
All persons engaged in a trade or business and making payment in the course of such trade or business to another person, of rent, salaries, wages, premiums, annuities, compensations, remunerations, emoluments, or other fixed or determinable gains, profits, and income (other than payments to which section 6042(a)(1), 6044(a)(1), 6047(e), 6049(a), or 6050N(a) applies, and other than payments with respect to which a statement is required under the authority of section 6042(a)(2), 6044(a)(2), or 6045), of $600 or more in any taxable year, or, in the case of such payments made by the United States, the officers or employees of the United States having information as to such payments and required to make returns in regard thereto by the regulations hereinafter provided for, shall render a true and accurate return to the Secretary, under such regulations and in such form and manner and to such extent as may be prescribed by the Secretary, setting forth the amount of such gains, profits, and income, and the name and address of the recipient of such payment.
26 U.S. Code § 6041A - Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and direct sales
(a)Returns regarding remuneration for servicesIf—
(1) any service-recipient engaged in a trade or business pays in the course of such trade or business during any calendar year remuneration to any person for services performed by such person, and
[. . .]
(d)Applications to governmental units
(1)Treated as persons
The term “person” includes any governmental unit (and any agency or instrumentality thereof).
[EDITORIAL: So it does not matter if is a trade or business! What matters is whether or not the payer AND the recipient is a "person" as defined. Note that 6041A(d) definition of "person" does not say "for purposes of this section". So one of the reasons to coerce a W-9 out of a payee is to obtain their certification of US person status---this confirms they are within the same meaning as the definition of person at 6041A i.e. "includes a governmental unit"
26 U.S.C. §162: Trade or Business Expenses
26 > Subtitle
A > CHAPTER
1 > Subchapter B > PART VI > Sec. 162.
- Trade or business expenses
(a) In general
There shall be allowed
as a deduction all the ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred
during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business, including
(1)a reasonable allowance for salaries or other compensation for personal services actually rendered;
26 U.S.C. §32: Earned Income Credit
TITLE 26 > Subtitle A > CHAPTER 1 > Subchapter A > PART IV > Subpart C > § 32
§ 32. Earned income
(i) Denial of
credit for individuals having excessive investment income
(1) In general
No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for the taxable
year if the aggregate amount of disqualified income of the taxpayer
for the taxable year exceeds $2,200.
purposes of paragraph (1), the term “disqualified income” means—
(A) interest or dividends to the extent includible in gross
income for the taxable year,
(B) interest received or accrued
during the taxable year which is exempt from tax imposed by
(C) the excess (if any) of—
(i) gross income from rents or royalties not derived
in the ordinary course of a trade
or business, over
(ii) the sum of—
(I) the deductions (other than
interest) which are clearly and directly allocable to
such gross income, plus
(II) interest deductions
properly allocable to such gross income,
26 C.F.R. §1.1-1: Income Tax on Individuals
Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES
Normal Taxes and Surtaxes
§ 1.1-1 Income tax on individuals.
(a) General rule.
(1) Section 1 of the Code imposes an income tax
on the income of every individual who is a citizen or resident of
the United States and, to the extent provided by section 871(b)
or 877(b), on the income of a nonresident alien individual. For
optional tax in the case of taxpayers with adjusted gross income
of less than $10,000 (less than $5,000 for taxable years beginning
before January 1, 1970) see section 3. The tax imposed is upon taxable
income (determined by subtracting the allowable deductions from
gross income). The tax is determined in accordance with the table
contained in section 1. See subparagraph (2) of this paragraph for
reference guides to the appropriate table for taxable years beginning
on or after January 1, 1964, and before January 1, 1965, taxable
years beginning after December 31, 1964, and before January 1, 1971,
and taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970. In certain
cases credits are allowed against the amount of the tax. See part
IV (section 31 and following), subchapter A, chapter 1 of the Code.
In general, the tax is payable upon the basis of returns rendered
by persons liable therefor (subchapter A (sections 6001 and following),
chapter 61 of the Code) or at the source of the income by withholding.
For the computation of tax in the case of a joint return of a husband
and wife, or a return of a surviving spouse, for taxable years beginning
before January 1, 1971, see section 2. The computation of tax in
such a case for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970,
is determined in accordance with the table contained in section
1(a) as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1969. For other rates of
tax on individuals, see section 5(a). For the imposition of an additional
tax for the calendar years 1968, 1969, and 1970, see section 51(a).
(2)(ii) (ii) For taxable years beginning
after December 31, 1970, the tax imposed by section 1(d) [married individuals filing separately] , as amended by the Tax Reform
Act of 1969, shall apply to the income effectively
connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United
States by a married alien individual who is a nonresident
of the United States for all or part of the taxable year or by a
foreign estate or trust. For such years the tax imposed
by section 1(c), as amended by such Act, shall apply to the income
effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in
the United States by an unmarried alien individual (other than a
surviving spouse) who is a nonresident of the United States for
all or part of the taxable year. See paragraph (b)(2) of §1.871–8.
26 C.F.R. §1.1402(c)-2: Trade or business
Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES
TAX ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT INCOME
§ 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business.
In order for an individual to have net earnings
from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either
as an individual or as a member of a partnership. Except for the
exclusions discussed in §§1.1402(c)–2 to 1.1402(c)–7, inclusive,
the term “trade or business”, for the purpose of the tax on self-employment
income, shall have the same meaning as when used in section 162.
An individual engaged in one of the excluded activities specified
in such sections of the regulations may also be engaged in carrying
on activities which constitute a trade or business for purposes
of the tax on self-employment income. Whether or not he is also
engaged in carrying on a trade or business will be dependent upon
all of the facts and circumstances in the particular case. An individual
who is a crew leader, as defined in section 3121(o) (see such section
and the regulations thereunder in part 31 of this chapter (Employment
Tax Regulations)), is considered to be engaged in carrying on a
trade or business with respect to services performed by him after
1956 in furnishing individuals to perform agricultural labor for
another person or services performed by him after 1956 as a member
of the crew.
[T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15937, Oct. 30, 1968]
26 C.F.R. 31.3401(a)(11)-1: Remuneration other than in cash for service
not in the course of employer's trade or business
26: Internal Revenue
PART 31—EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE
Subpart E—Collection of Income Tax at Source
§ 31.3401(a)(11)-1 Remuneration other than in cash for
service not in the course of employer's trade or business.
(a) Remuneration paid
in any medium other than cash for services not in the course of
the employer's trade or business is excepted from wages and hence is not
subject to withholding. Cash remuneration includes checks
and other monetary media of exchange. Remuneration paid in any medium
other than cash, such as lodging, food, or other goods or commodities,
for services not in the course of the employer's trade or business does not constitute
wages. Remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for other
types of services does not come within this exception from wages.
For provisions relating to cash remuneration for service not in
the course of employer's trade or business, see §31.3401(a)(4)–1.
(b) As used in this section, the term “services
not in the course of the employer's trade or business” has the same
meaning as when used in §31.3401(a)(4)–1
Congress, Act of July 1, 1862, Chapter 119, 12 Stat. 432
This is the earliest instance of the use of the word "trade or business"
that we are aware of in any act of Congress. See the following
references to "trade or business":
- Section 60, p. 454
- Section 62, p. 454
- Section 63, p. 455
Manual, Section 18.104.22.168: Trade or Business
Trade or Business
1. For purposes of IRC 513, the term "trade or business" has
the same meaning it has in IRC 162, and generally includes any activity
carried on for the production of income from the sale of goods or
performance of services. Thus, the term trade or business is not
limited to integrated aggregates of assets, activities, and goodwill
which comprise businesses for the purposes of certain other provisions
of the Code. Activities of producing or distributing goods or performing
services from which a particular amount of gross income is derived
do not lose identity as trade or business merely because they are
carried on within a larger aggregate of similar activities or within
a larger complex of other endeavors which may, or may not, be related
to the exempt purposes of the organization. Regs. 1.513–1(b).
U.S. v. American Bar Endowment, 477 U.S.
105, 106 S.Ct. 2426 (U.S.,1986)
In the Tax Reform Act of 1969, Pub.L.
91-172, 83 Stat. 487, Congress defined a “trade or business” as
“any activity which is carried on for the production of income from
the sale of goods or the performance of services,” § 513(c). The Secretary of the Treasury has provided further
clarification of that definition in Treas.Reg. § 1.513-1(b) (1985), which provides: “in general,
any activity of [an exempt] organization which is carried on for
the production of income and which otherwise possesses the characteristics
required to constitute ‘trade or business' within the meaning of
section 162” is a trade or business for purposes of 26 U.S.C. §§ 511-513.FN1
FN1. Section 162 permits a taxpayer
to deduct “all the ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred
during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business.”
Undoubtedly due to the desirability of tax deductions, § 162
has spawned a rich and voluminous jurisprudence. The standard
test for the existence of a trade or business for purposes of
§ 162 is whether the activity “was entered into with the dominant
hope and intent of realizing a profit.” Brannen v. Commissioner, 722 F.2d 695, 704 (CA11 1984) (citation omitted). Thus several Courts of Appeals have adopted
the “profit motive” test to determine whether an activity constitutes
a trade or business for purposes of the unrelated business income
tax. See Professional Insurance Agents of Michigan v. Commissioner, 726 F.2d 1097 (CA6 1984); Carolinas Farm & Power Equipment Dealers v. United States, 699 F.2d 167 (CA4 1983); Louisiana Credit Union League v. United States, 693
F.2d 525 (CA5 1982).
**2430 ABE's insurance program falls within the literal language of
these definitions. ABE's activity is both “the sale of goods” and
“the performance of services,” and possesses the *111 general characteristics of a trade or business. Certainly the
assembling of a group of better-than-average insurance risks, negotiating
on their behalf with insurance companies, and administering a group
policy are activities that can be-and are-provided by private commercial
entities in order to make a profit. ABE itself earns considerable
income from its program. Nevertheless, the Claims Court and Court
of Appeals concluded that ABE does not carry out its insurance program
in order to make a profit. The Claims Court relied on the
former Court of Claims holding, in Disabled American Veterans v. United States, 650 F.2d 1178,
1187 (1981), that an activity is a trade or business only if
“operated in a competitive, commercial manner.” See 4 Cl.Ct., at 409. Because ABE does not operate its insurance
program in a competitive, commercial manner, the Claims Court decided,
that program is not a trade or business. The Court of Appeals adopted
this reasoning. 761 F.2d, at 1577.
[U.S. v. American Bar Endowment, 477 U.S. 105,
106 S.Ct. 2426 (U.S.,1986)]
License Tax Cases, 72 U.S. 462, 18 L.Ed. 497, 5 Wall. 462, 2 A.F.T.R.
"Thus, Congress having power to regulate commerce with foreign nations,
and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes, may, without
doubt, provide for granting coasting licenses, licenses to pilots, licenses
to trade with the Indians, and any other licenses necessary or proper
for the exercise of that great and extensive power; and the same
observation is applicable to every other power of Congress, to the exercise
of which the granting of licenses may be incident. All such licenses
confer authority, and give rights to the licensee. But very different
considerations apply to the internal commerce or domestic trade of the
States. Over this commerce and trade Congress has no power of regulation
nor any direct control. This power belongs exclusively to the
States. No interference by Congress with the business of citizens transacted
within a State is warranted by the Constitution, except such as is strictly
incidental to the exercise of powers clearly granted to the legislature.
The power to authorize a business within a State is plainly repugnant
to the exclusive power of the State over the same subject. It
is true that the power of Congress to tax is a very extensive power.
It is given in the Constitution, with only one exception and only two
qualifications. Congress cannot tax exports, and it must impose direct
taxes by the rule of apportionment, and indirect taxes by the rule of
uniformity. Thus limited, and thus only, it reaches every subject, and
may be exercised at discretion. But, it reaches only existing
subjects. Congress cannot authorize a trade
or business within a State in order to tax it."
[License Tax Cases, 72 U.S. 462, 18 L.Ed. 497, 5 Wall. 462, 2 A.F.T.R. 2224 (1866)]